462 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. Chikishliar, near the mouth of the River Atrek. Strong protests were made by Persia, but in vain. The new- comers gradually extended their authority over the neighbouring Yamut Turkoman and surveyed the routes to the interior. The avowed object of Russia was to open up a direct route into Central Asia, a policy under- taken no doubt partly in the interests of the province of Turkestan. The activity of the Russian pioneers naturally caused widespread uneasiness. The Khan of Khiva felt that the demand made on him to co-operate in opening up communications with the Sea of Aral across his territory menaced his independence. A campaign against Khiva had been decided upon in principle for some time ; it was, indeed, forced on Russia by Khivan support of the Kirghiz rising. In 1873 three columns advanced simul- taneously from Krasnovodsk, from Perovski, and from Orenburg. Two of these1 reached the great oasis safely, encountering no resistance, and Russia annexed the land on the right bank of the Amu Darya, where she constructed 'two forts. The young Khan was reinstated on the throne, but a crushing war indemnity of nearly a quarter of a million sterling was imposed. Persian Campaigns against the Turkoman, 1857-1860.— Before we come to the final phase of the Russian advance, we must turn for a moment to the relations existing between Persia and the Turkoman at this period. In 1857 Sultan Murad Mirza> Governor - General of Khorasan, invited eighty Turkoman to a conference at Meshed, where they were treacherously seized and im- prisoned. Having by this act weakened the man-stealers, the Persian Governor-General marched on Merv, which he occupied as the result of a victory. Three years later he was succeeded by Hamza Mirza, who occupied Merv a second time without opposition, but was defeated in an attempt on the entrenched camp of the Tekke close by. His army fled in complete disorder, leaving its guns to 1 The Krasnovodsk column was forced to retreat from lack of water, after burying its guns in the sand. Burnaby comments on the fact that no use was made of water transport, although steamers had penetrated as far as Kungrad on the Amu Darya to the north of the Khivajo. oasis.